Radiation Therapy is having a technological boom that is exponential. Radiation Therapy used to be thought as a last resort tool in the fight against cancer, but has now moved to the forefront, not only for primary treatment, but for palliation of oncology patients, and also non-oncology patients. The historic use of x-rays and implanted isotopes in the form of Brachytherapy is now dwarfed by the use of Linear Accelerated technology, including particles. The ability to sculpt dose delivered to a tumor, while sparing critical organs has not only become feasible, but is being optimized with millimeter precision. This has to do with the delivery capabilities of linear accelerators and modulated proton beams, which has been solidified by the ability to plan for patient treatments by using multi-modality imaging. This includes CT Scans, including; gated scans, (essentially 4-Dimensional) the use of MRI, including real-time image capture, and PET scanning to further aid diagnosis and nodal staging. The ability to co-register images from various imaging systems, and to be able to isolate and render targets and critical organs, has become its own science. The delivery systems have moved from treating through crude apertures, to now dynamically modify a field shape, and even the intensity across the beam, as dictated from the treatment plan and adapt to the dynamic nature of patients. The imaging which takes place in the treatment rooms has moved from static films, to real time x-ray capture, cone beam CT, and now the newest advent of real-time MR captured during radiotherapy treatment. There are single ring technologies are being rapidly developed particle therapy has the advantage of a beam that stops at a designated distal range with millimeter precision. This is now augmented by having the ability to perform imaging in the room, and also delivery techniques that intensely modulate the proton beams.